Bibliographic Style

Definition: A bibliography is an alphabetical list of all the sources you have consulted for an essay or research paper. You must list your sources in a specific format. Use this guide to create your bibliography in the correct format.(1)


There are 3 popular citation styles, students and professors can use as a bibliography of their work, these are: APA style, CMS style and MLA style. These styles are very easy to use, we just have to follow the rules, through their handbooks.


I would like to introduce each citation style, and the importance of use to each one:


1- APA (American Psychological Association) style: It has established a style that it uses in all of the books and journals that it publishes. Many others working in the social and behavioral sciences have adopted this style as their standard as well. (2)

The APA handbook 5th edition, is presenting what is the rule of citation to each of the following:


  • Citing Authors
  • Citing Books
  • Citing Periodicals
  • Citing Other Sources
  • Citing Publication Information
  • Citing Internet Sources
  • In-text Citation Information (3)


2- CMS (Chicago Manual Style): is used primarily in history and some humanities and social science disciplines. CMS requires endnotes and a bibliography; although endnotes are preferred, footnotes are sometimes allowed instead.(4)

These are some guidelines the researcher or writer has to consider:

  • Page Set-Up
  • Bibliography Page Set-Up
  • Style Essentials
  • Formal Report Elements
  • Checklist for Error Elimination
  • Audience
  • Citation Basics (5)


3- MLA (Modern Language Association) style: Is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (6th ed.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (2nd ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.(6)


The following are the guidelines of the MLA style:


  • General Format
  • The Basics
  • Author-Page Style
  • Formatting Quotations
  • Footnotes and Endnotes
  • Books
  • Periodicals
  • Electronic Sources
  • Other Non-Print Sources
  • Additional Resources





(3) for further information on each format please look at this website:





Edited by: Nour Soufi

Class: Information access/ fall 2006

DianaBibliographic Style