American Archives and Manuscripts

In Uncategorized

American Archives and Manuscripts
IS 431, Fall 2012
Professor Anne Gilliland

Class meeting times:

9:00 – 12:20 p.m. Thursdays. Room 111 GSE&IS Building.

Office hours:

Instructor: Professor Anne Gilliland, Wednesday, 1-4pm at 212 GSEIS Building (sign-up sheet outside office door); or email instructor for another appointment.
Special Reader: Patricia Garcia, Wednesdays, 12-2pm, office TBA.

Course description:

This introductory course will use lectures, assignments, readings, and in class discussions and exercises to provide an overview of historical and evolving conceptual foundations, major professional institutions, key practices, and contemporary issues and concerns of the American archives and manuscripts professions.

Learning objectives:

By the end of the course, students should:

  • Be familiar with archival terminology and be able to use it in discussions and assignments.
  • Be able to define, discuss and identify instances of concepts that are central to Archival Science , especially record(s), recordkeeping, Archive/archives, evidence, memory and authenticity; related terms such as manuscripts and historical and special collections; and key professional principles and models such as the principle of provenance, respect des fonds, the sanctity of original order, the records life cycle, and the records continuum.

  • Be able to identify the roles played in the development of these concepts by key individuals such as Muller, Feith, and Fruin, Jenkinson, Schellenberg, Terry Cook; Ketelaar, Duranti, Upward, and McKemmish

  • Be able to identify and demonstrate real-life examples of ways in which records and archival programs serve as instruments of bureaucracy, accountability, democracy, memory-keeping, identity construction, redress and reconciliation, community and individual empowerment, and research.

  • Be sufficiently familiar with the functions, processes and underlying ideas of appraisal, accessioning, preservation, arrangement, description, dissemination, reference and use, and outreach in traditional and digital archival and manuscripts environments to be able to articulate major approaches and considerations in each area with reference to key literature and standards in the field.

  • Be familiar with professional values and ethics, and legal requirements for archives and manuscript administration in the United States.

How this course will work:

The first few weeks of the course will be spent learning about the nature and lineage of core and related archival concepts, with reference to real-life examples; the history of the U.S. National Archives and the Society of American Archivists; and the development of core archival values and ethics. The course will then introduce the nature and roles of major archival practices and processes (these practices and processes are addressed in more depth in advanced courses such as Archival Appraisal, Archival Description and Access, Records and Information Resources Management, Preservation of Heritage Materials, Digital Records Management, and Community-based Archiving), and legal and policy issues.

This is a highly enrolled course and so it is not always possible to have as much discussion in class as might be optimal. The CCLE course site will be used as a space to continue classroom discussion, raise additional issues, and post examples of archive-related items from the popular media, other fields, etc.

Expectations , assignments and grading criteria:

Students are expected to read widely based on the required readings as well as those relevant to their own assignments and interests. They should be prepared to discuss and comment upon readings and lectures and to integrate these into their assignments. Critical and original thinking, oral and written presentation skills, evidence of reading widely, and class participation will be important components of this class and will be graded accordingly. Assignments should conform to the requirements of the Chicago Manual of Style. Students should be aware of the University policy on plagiarism and ensure that all their work is their own, or that it gives appropriate credit to other authors.

Students should be mindful that successful completion of assignments will require a considerable amount of reading and analysis, and should plan their time accordingly. All assignments are expected to be turned in on time.

Assignments and grading:

  1. Identification of relevant cases, controversies and concerns and the archival concepts they invoke (20%): Contributions to be made by each student for the duration of the course.

Goals: To encourage students to reflect upon the ways in which issues that are addressed in Archival Studies surface in the popular media, in fiction, and in other disciplinary literatures and provide insight on how society uses or views archives, records or recordkeeping, and manuscripts; and to encourage a robust understanding of important concepts in archival theory and practice as well as of the various ways in which they are viewed or understood in other disciplinary and popular contexts.

A Cases discussion forum has been set up on the course CCLE site— all students are to enter and discuss in the forum any examples that they find (it could be from television, radio, newspapers, blogs, social networking environments, fiction, or the literatures of other disciplinary fields) where topics relevant to this class are mentioned. Each entry should also indicate the ways in which any of the following concepts are invoked by the case, either explicitly or implicitly, and any questions arising that might provoke further discussion on the forum:


Note: Any time someone provides a reference to a definition or a case, s/he should also be sure to include the appropriate citation.

  1. Analysis of a record or archival item (35%): Due (in paper form) in class on November 8.

Goals: To test understanding of the characteristics of records and ways in which those characteristics might support different kinds of readings or understandings of those records; ability to connect concepts such as authenticity, authority, evidence, context, neutrality, provenance and co-creatorship with actual records or archival items and their uses; identify challenges that archives might face in selecting, describing and preserving such materials; reflect upon the various ways in which records can be read with and against the grain; and reflect upon the respective values and meanings of such kinds of records or archival items that might persist or differ when they are in digital/digitized from a non-digital form.

Identify a particular record or archival item (it might be one you have found in an archive, online, in your workplace, or one that you or your family have in your possession) and prepare a 5-8 page paper that analyses the following:
• Its salient characteristics as a record or archival item and how these are related to the activity or function that generated it;
• The documentary context of the item (i.e., how it relates to other records or items);
• The actual or potential effect or impact of the item in and over time;
• The perspectives that are explicitly expressed in the item and how these are expressed;
• The perspectives or persons that are implicitly present or implicated with the item and the ways in which this is the case;
• The considerations that you believe make this item of archival value;
• The characteristics and values of this item to different communities of creators and users that you believe would be important to describe in archival metadata;
• The characteristics and values of this item to different communities of creators and users that you believe would be important to maintain if it were to be preserved or disseminated in another medium.

Grading will be based upon the quality of the analysis, critical insight, and reflection; grasp of archival concepts; students’ ability to relate what they are analyzing to what they have read for class and on their own; and the written quality of the paper.

  1. Term paper or project (45%). Due (in paper form) to Patricia Garcia by December 9 at 5pm.

Goal: As the course’s review of archival concepts and practices will show, archives, records, and recordkeeping are essential means that can be used for many purposes including:
• to support, document, create transparency and hold institutions, groups and initiatives and their bureaucracies accountable;
• to support the empowerment, representation, and affirmation of individuals and communities who have not always been prominent in the historical record, or whose culture and identity is based upon non-textual ways of recording and remembering;
• to support actions relating to acknowledgment, redress, restitution, reparation, reconciliation, replevin and repatriation involving those who have been repressed, persecuted, colonized, ignored, despised, or forgotten;
• to support scholarly and avocational investigation and learning; and
• to support personal enrichment and leisure.

This paper will demonstrate student awareness of how archives, records and recordkeeping fulfill these purposes, as well as of how the role of archives, records and recordkeeping translates, thrives or is challenged in a digital world.

Increasingly, recordkeeping and the creation and dissemination of traditional and new forms of archival documentation (e.g., documentation generated in social media environments) are occurring digitally (e.g., through digital archives and libraries; the Internet Archive; digital repatriation projects). There have also been many prominent legal cases and public controversies in recent years relating to digital records (e.g., Presidential email; WikiLeaks; global warming research data; digital reconstruction of shredded Stasi informant files; media mashups). Working on your own, or as part of a group of no more than 3 people, prepare a 15-20 page paper or project on a real-life digital case of your choice that in some way underscores one or more of the above purposes of archives, records, or recordkeeping [this paper satisfies the MLIS major paper requirement].

Your assignment may treat any medium – digital text, databases, sound, film, home movies, oral/video history, photographs, social media, or any historical or contemporary case or event that relates to records, archives, recordkeeping, or even memory-keeping more generally that has a digital dimension. If you are unsure about a potential topic, please email or visit the instructor or Patricia Garcia during office hours.

Your work should state your argument, briefly describe your case, and lay out what you see to be the important archival considerations or lessons (the paper should be analytical and critical. It should not simply be a long narrative description of the case). Including a brief abstract or executive summary (if it is a project) will help to clarify the main points that you are trying to convey. Your paper or project should draw upon professional, scholarly, historical, cultural and literary or other texts (including popular media) as appropriate to reinforce your argument. It should comment, as relevant, upon what you have interpreted as a source as well as where and how you located your source material. It should also comment upon the extent to which archival concepts and practices, as you have learned about them in this class, address or might need to be extended to address, issues that you see arising from the topic or case you have chosen. If you choose to work as part of a group, then the project should be larger in scope and you will be graded according to the amount of effort demonstrated for a group of the relevant size.

Grading will be based upon analysis and critical reflection; relevance of the topic to the course; demonstrated mastery of archival and recordkeeping concepts; integration of relevant references from the archival literature and elsewhere; and written quality.

Bibliography of background readings on archival concepts, theory and practice:

English-language journals in the field: American Archivist (Society of American Archivists-SAA); Archival Issues (Midwest Archives Conference-MAC); Archival Science (Elsevier); Archivaria (Association of Canadian Archivists-ACA); Archives & Manuscripts (Australian Society of Archivists-ASA); College & Research Libraries (ACRL); Journal of Archival Organization (Routledge); Journal of the Society of Archivists (Society of Archivists of the UK and Ireland).

A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology, Richard Pearce-Moses, ed. (Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 2005). Available:

Abukhanfusa, Kerstin, ed. The Concept of Record: Second Stockholm Conference on Archival Science and the Concept of Record, 30-31 May 1996 (Stockholm: Riksarkivet, 1998).
Assman, Jan. “Collective Memory and Cultural Identity.” New German Critique 65 (Spring/Summer 1995): 125-133.
Atherton, Jay. “From Life Cycle to Continuum: Some Thoughts on the Records Management-Archives Relationship,” Canadian Archival Studies and the Rediscovery of Provenance, Tom Nesmith, ed. (Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press and Society of American Archivists and Association of Canadian Archivists, 1993): 391-402.
Bearman, David A., and Richard H. Lytle. “The Power of the Principle of Provenance,” Archivaria 21 (1985): 14–27.
Berner, Richard. Archival Theory and Practice in the United States: A Historical Analysis (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1983)
Brichford, Maynard. “The Origins of Modern Archival Theory,” Midwestern Archivist 7 no.2 (1982): 86–101.
Burke, Frank G. “The Future Course of Archival Theory in the United States,” American Archivist 41 (1981): 40–6.
Burke, Frank G. Research and the Manuscripts Tradition (London and Chicago: Scarecrow and Society of American Archivists, 1997).
Clanchy, M.T. From Memory to the Written Record, England 1066-1307 2nd. ed. (Oxford; Cambridge, USA: Blackwell, 1993).
Cook, Terry. “Archival Science and Postmodernism: New Formulations for Old Concepts.” Archival Science 1, 1 (2001): 3-24.
Cook, Terry. “From Information to Knowledge: An Intellectual Paradigm for Archives,” Canadian Archival Studies and the Rediscovery of Provenance, Tom Nesmith, ed. (Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press and Society of American Archivists and Association of Canadian Archivists, 1993): 202-226.
Cox, Richard. American Archival Analysis: The Recent Development of the Archival Profession in the United States (Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow, 1990).
Cox, Richard. Closing an Era: Historical Perspectives on Modern Archives and Records Management (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000).
Cox, Richard. Managing Records as Evidence and Information (Westport, CT: Quorum, 2001).
Cox, Richard and David Wallace, eds Archives and the Public Good: Accountability and Records in Modern Society (Quorum Books, 2002).
Dearstyne, Bruce W. The Archival Enterprise: Modern Archival Principles, Practices, and Management Techniques (Chicago: American Library Association, 1993).
Duranti, Luciana. Diplomatics: New Uses for an Old Science (Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow, 1998).
Duranti, Luciana. “The Archival Bond,” Archives & Museum Informatics 11, nos. 3-4 (1997): 213-18.
Eastwood, Terry. “What is Archival Theory and Why is it Important?” Archivaria 37 (Spring 1994): 122-30.
Terry Eastwood and Heather MacNeil eds, Currents of Archival Thinking. Santa Barbara, CA, Denver, CO, and Oxford, England: Libraries Unlimited, ABC CLIO, 2009).
Ellis, J. ed.. Keeping Archives, 2nd and 3rd eds. (Port Melbourne, Victoria: Australian Society of Archivists, 1997, and 2008).
Ellis, Roger H. and Peter Wahne, eds. Selected Writings of Sir Hilary Jenkinson, Chicago, IL: SAA, 2003.
Hurley, Chris. “Ambient Functions - Abandoned Children to Zoos
,” Archivaria, 40 (Fall 1995): 21-39.
Hurley, Chris. “Problems with Provenance
,” Archives and Manuscripts, 23, no. 2 (November 1995): 234-259.
Hurley, Chris. “What, if Anything, is a Function?” Archives and Manuscripts, 21, no. 2 (November 1993): 208-220.
Jenkinson, Hilary. A Manual of Archive Administration (Lund, Humphries & Co.: London, 1965).
Livelton, Trevor. Archival Theory, Records, and the Public (Lanham, MD: Society of American Archivists and Scarecrow, 1996).
MacNeil, Heather. “From the Memory of the Act to the Act Itself. The Evolution of Written Records as Proof of Jural Acts in England, 11th to 17th Century,” Archival Science 6 nos. 3-4 (2006): 313-328.
McKemmish, Sue. “Evidence of Me … “Archives and Manuscripts, 24, no. 1 (May 1996): 28-45
McKemmish, Sue. “Traces: Document, Record, Archive, Archives.” In Archives: Recordkeeping in Society , edited by Michael Piggott, Barbara Reed, Frank Upward, and Sue McKemmish, 1-20. Wagga Wagga N.S.W.: Centre for Information Studies Charles Stuart University, 2005.
Mitchell, Thornton W. ed. Norton on Archives (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1975).
Muller, S., Feith, J. A., and Fruin, R. Manual for the Arrangement and Description of Archives (New York, 1968).
McKemmish, Sue and Michael Piggott, eds. The Records Continuum. Ancora Press, 1994.
Nesmith, Tom, ed. Canadian Archival Studies and the Rediscovery of provenance (Metuchen, NJ: SAA and ACA, 1993).
Posner, Ernst. American State Archives (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964).
Posner, Ernst. Archives in the Ancient World. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press: 1972).
Peace, Nancy, ed. Archival Choices: Managing the Historical Record in an Age of Abundance (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, c.1984).
The Principle of Provenance: Proceedings of the First Stockholm Conference on Archival Theory and the Principle of Provenance 2-3 Sept 1993 (Stockholm: Swedish National Archives, 1994).
Proctor, Margaret, Michael Cook and Caroline Williams, eds. Political Pressure and the Archival Record, Chicago, IL: SAA, 2005.
Roberts, D. "Defining Electronic Records. Documents and Data," Archives and Manuscripts 22 no.2 (1994): 14–26.
Roberts, John W. “Archival Theory: Much Ado About Shelving,” American Archivist 50 (1987): 66–74.
Roberts, John W. “Archival Theory: Myth or Banality?” American Archivist 53 (1990): 110–20.
Samuels, Helen. Varsity Letters: Documenting Modern Colleges and Universities (Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1992).
Schellenberg, Theodore R. The Management of Archives (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1984).
Schellenberg, Theodore R. Modern Archives: Principles and Techniques (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956).
Upward, Frank. “In Search of the Continuum: Ian Maclean's 'Australian Experience' Essays on Recordkeeping
,” in The Records Continuum: Ian Maclean and Australian Archives First Fifty Years, Sue McKemmish and Michael Piggott, eds (Ancora Press in association with Australian Archives, Clayton, 1994).
Upward, Frank, “Structuring the Records Continuum Part One: Post-custodial Principles and Properties',” Archives and Manuscripts, 24, no. 2 (1996): 268-285. /fupp1.html
Upward, Frank, “Structuring the Records Continuum Part Two: Structuration Theory and Recordkeeping',”Archives and Manuscripts, 25, no. 1 (May 1997): 10-35. /fupp2.html
Upward, Frank, “Modelling the Continuum as a Paradigm Shift in Recordkeeping and Archiving Processes, and Beyond - A Personal Reflection',” Records Management Journal, 10 no. 3 (2000): 115-139. Available:
Wood, Helen. “The Fetish of the Document: An Exploration of Attitudes Towards Archives.” In New Directions in Archival Research, edited by Margaret Procter and C. P. Lewis (Liverpool: Liverpool University Centre for Archive Studies, 2000): 20-48.
Yeo, Geoffrey. “Concepts of Record (2): Prototypes and Boundary Objects,” The American Archivist 71 no.1 (Spring/Summer 2007): 118-143.
Yeo, Geoffrey. “Concepts of Record (1): Evidence, Information, and Persistent Representations,” The American Archivist 70 no.2 (Fall/Winter 2007): 315-343.
Yeo, Geoffrey. “‘Nothing is the Same as Something Else’: Significant Properties and Notions of Identity and Originality,” Archival Science 10, no. 2 (2010): 85-116.

Schedule and Readings

September 27: Introductions; course objectives; assignments. The societal role of records, recordkeeping and archives. Core concept definitions.
Required readings:
Cook, Terry. “The Archive(s) Is a Foreign Country: Historians, Archivists, and the Changing Archival Landscape,” American Archivist 74 no.2 (Fall/Winter 2011).
Ketelaar, Eric. “Time Future Contained in Time Past: Archival Science in the 21st Century.” Journal of the Japan Society for Archival Science 1 (2004): 20-35.
Foote, Kenneth. “To Remember and Forget: Archives, Memory, and Culture,” American Archivist 53 no.3 (Summer 1990): 378-392.
Gilliland, Anne. “Enduring Paradigm, New Opportunities: The Value of the Archival Perspective in the Digital Environment,” in Michèle V. Cloonan, ed. The Heritage of Preservation (Neals-Schuman) (in press).
O’Toole, James M. “The Symbolic Significance of Archives,” American Archivist 56 (Spring 1993): 2344-2355.
Valderhaug, Gudmund. “Memory, Justice and the Public Record,” Archival Science 11 (2011).

October 4: Historical overview of the development of archives and archival consciousness and values. History and development of the public archives and historical manuscripts traditions in the United States.
Required readings:
Cook, Terry, “What is Past is Prologue: A History of Archival Ideas Since 1898, and the Future Paradigm Shift,” Archivaria, 43 (Spring 1997), 17-63.
Duranti, Luciana. “Archives as a Place,” Archives and Manuscripts (November 1996): 242-255.
Gilliland-Swetland, Luke J. “The Provenance of a Profession: The Permanence of the Public Archives and Manuscript Traditions in American Archival History,” American Archivist 54 (Spring 1991): 160-175.
McCoy, Donald. "The Struggle to Establish a National Archives in the United States," in Timothy Walch, ed. Guardian of Heritage: Essays on the History of the National Archives (Washington: National Archives and Records Administration, 1985): 1 16.
Panitch, Judith M. “Liberty, Equality, Posterity?: Some Archival Lessons from the Case of the French Revolution,” American Archivist 59 (Winter 1996): 30-47.

Suggested background readings on U.S. state archives:
Posner, Ernst. American State Archives (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964): 7-35.
Walch, Victoria Irons. “State Archives in 1997: Diverse Conditions, Common Directions,” American Archivist 60 (Spring 1996): 132-151.

October 11: History and development of American archival and records professions and professional groups. Professional values and ethics.
Required readings (the ethics statements will be the subject of in-class exercises, so be sure to read them before class):
Evans, Frank B. “Archivists and Records Managers: Variations on a Theme,” American Archivist 30 (January 1967): 45-58.
Harris, Verne. “Jacques Derrida Meets Nelson Mandela: Archival Ethics at the Endgame,” Archival Science (2011).
Hurley, Chris. “Political Pressure and the Archival Record Revisited: The Role of the Archives in Protecting the Record from Political Pressure,” 15th International Congress on Archives 2004 - Archives, Memory and Knowledge, Vienna, 25th August 2004 - reprise of paper delivered in Liverpool at Liverpool University Centre for Archive Studies in July 2003.
Iacovino, Livia. “Rethinking Archival, Ethical and Legal Frameworks for Records of Indigenous Australian Communities: A Participant Relationship Model of Rights and Responsibilities,” Archival Science (2011).
Ketelaar, Eric. “The Right to Know, the Right to Forget? Personal Information in Public Archives,” Archives and Manuscripts 23 (1995): 8-17.
ALA/SAA Joint Statement on Access to Research Materials in Archives and Special Collections Libraries,
International Council on Archives, Code of Ethics,
Society of American Archivists, Core Values Statement and Code of Ethics,

Reference texts:
Behrnd-Klodt, Menzi L. and Peter J. Wosh, eds. Privacy and Confidentiality Perspectives: Archivists and Archival Records, Chicago, IL: SAA, 2005.
Danielson, Elena. The Ethical Archivist (Chicago, IL: Society of American Archivists, 2010).
Iacovino, Livia, Recordkeeping, Ethics and Law: Regulatory Models, Participant Relationships and Rights and Responsibilities in te Online World, Springer, 2006.
MacNeil, Heather, Trusting Records: Legal, Historical and Diplomatic Perspectives, Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2000.
MacNeil, Heather, Without Consent: The Ethics of Disclosing Personal Information in Public Archives, Lanham, MD: Scarecrow and SAA, 1992.

October 18: The development of appraisal theory and practice
Required readings:
Boles, Frank and Mark Greene,. “Et Tu Schellenberg? Thoughts on the Dagger of American Appraisal Theory,” American Archivist 59 (Summer 1996): 298-310.
Flinn, Andrew, Mary Stevens, and Elizabeth Shepherd. “Whose Memories, Whose Archives? Independent Community Archives, Autonomy and the Mainstream,” Archival Science 9 (2009): 71-86.
Greene, Mark. “’The Surest Proof’: A Utilitarian Approach to Appraisal,” Archivaria 45 (Spring 1998): 127-169.
Kaplan, Elisabeth. “We Are What We Collect, We Collect What We Are: Archives and the Construction of Identity,” 63 no.1 American Archivist (Spring 2000).
Library and Archives Canada. Appraisal Methodology: Macro-Appraisal and Functional Analysis (2000).
Schellenberg, Theodore R. The Appraisal of Modern Public Records: National Archives Bulletin 8 (Washington: National Archives and Records Service, 1956).

October 25: Manuscript selection and collection. Documentation strategies. Accessioning archives materials.
Required readings:
Blake, Ben, “The New Archives for American Labor: From Attic to Digital Shop Floor,” American Archivist 70 (Spring/Summer 2007): 130-150.
Chodorow, Stanley. “To Represent Us Truly: The Job and Context of Preserving the Cultural Record,” Libraries & the Cultural Record 41, no. 3 (Summer 2006): 372-380.
Cox, Richard J. “The Documentation Strategy and Archival Appraisal Principles: A Different Perspective,” Archivaria 38 (Fall 1994): 11-36.
Ericson, Timothy L. “At the ‘Rim of Creative Dissatisfaction’: Archivists and Acquisition Development,” Archivaria 33 (Winter 1991-1992): 66-77.
Hackman, Larry J. and Joan Warnow-Blewett. “The Documentation Strategy Process: A Model and a Case Study,” American Archivist 50 (Winter 1987): 12-29.
Ham, F. Gerald. "Archival Choices: Managing the Historical Record in an Age of Abundance," American Archivist 47 (Winter 1984): 11-22.

November 1: History and philosophy of archival arrangement.
Required readings:
Bearman, David A. and Richard H. Lytle. “The Power of the Principle of Provenance,” Archivaria 21 (Winter 1985-86): 14-27.
Boles, Frank. "Disrespecting Original Order," American Archivist 45 (Winter 1982): 26-32.
Duchein, Michel. “Theoretical Principles and Practical Problems of Respect des Fonds in Archival Science,” Archivaria 16 (1983): 64–82.
Holmes, Oliver W. “Archival Arrangement—Five Different Operations at Five Different Levels,” American Archivist 27 (January 1964): 21-41.
Monks-Leeson, Emily. “Archives on the Internet: Representing Contexts and Provenance from Repository to Website,” American Archivist 74 no. 1 (Spring/Summer 2011).
Schellenberg, Theodore R. “Archival Principles of Arrangement,” American Archivist 24 (January 1961): 11-24.

Reference text:
Muller, S., J.A. Feith and R. Fruin, Manual for the Arrangement and Description of Archives, Chicago, IL: SAA, 2003 new edition).

November 8. Analysis assignment due in class. Guest presenter, Michelle Caswell. Reference techniques for archival records. Archival user issues major categories of users, determining user needs, archival outreach.
Required readings:
Finch, Elsie Freeman. “In the Eye of the Beholder: Archives Administration from the User’s Point of View,” American Archivist 47 (Spring 1984): 111-123.
Hastings, Emiko. “’No Longer a Silent Victim of History:’ Repurposing the Documents of Japanese American Internment” Archival Science (2011).
Pugh, Mary Jo. “The Illusion of Omniscience: Subject Access and the Reference Archivist,” American Archivist 45 (Winter 1982): 33-44.
Yakel, Elizabeth and Laura L. Bost Hensey. “Understanding Administrative Use and Users in University Archives,” American Archivist (Fall 1994): 596-615.
Yakel, Elizabeth and Deborah Torres, “Genealogists as a ‘Community of Records’,” American Archivist 70 (Spring/Summer 2007): 93-113.

Reference texts:
Council on Library and Information Resources. Working Together or Apart:
Promoting the Next Generation of Digital Scholarship, Report of a Workshop Cosponsored by the Council on Library and Information Resources and National Endowment for the Humanities (Washington, D.C.: CLIR, March 2009).
Pugh, Mary Jo. Providing Reference Services for Archives and Manuscripts, Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1992.

November 15: Archival descriptive practices.
Required readings:
Gilliland-Swetland, Anne J. “Popularizing the Finding Aid: Exploiting EAD to Enhance Online Browsing and Retrieval in Archival Information Systems by Diverse User Groups,” Journal of Internet Cataloging 4 nos. 3/4 (2001): 199-225.
Greene, Mark A. and Dennis Meissner. More Product, Less Process: Pragmatically Revamping Traditional Processing Approaches To Deal With Late 20th Century Collections.
Hensen, Steven L. "Squaring the Circle: The Reformation of Archival Description," Library Trends 36 no. 3 (Winter 1988): 539-552.
Mandel, Carol. “Hidden Collections: The Elephant in the Closet” (ca. 2004).
Millar, Laura, “An Obligation of Trust: Speculations on Accountability and Description,” American Archivist 69 (Spring/Summer 2006): 60-78.
McKemmish, Sue et al. “Describing Records in Context in the Continuum: the Australian Recordkeeping Metadata Schema,” Archivaria 48 (Fall 1999): 3-43.

Reference texts:
EAD Official Site.
International Council on Archives Committee on Descriptive Standards.
Society of American Archivists, Describing Archives: A Content Standard (Chicago, IL: Society of American Archivists, 2007).

November 22: Thanksgiving Holiday

November 29: Preservation and persistence of physical, born-digital and digitized archives and manuscript materials.
O’Toole, James. “On the Idea of Permanence,” American Archivist 52.1 (Winter 1989): 11-25.
Society of American Archivists, “Statement on the Preservation of Digitized Reproductions,” 1997.

Reference texts:
Council on Library and Information Resources. The State of Recorded Sound Preservation in the United States:
A National Legacy at Risk in the Digital Age, Commissioned for and sponsored by the National Recording Preservation Board, Library of Congress (Washington, D.C: CLIR, August 2010).
Gracy, Karen. Film Preservation: Competing Definitions of Value, Use, and Practice (Chicago, IL: Society of American Archivists, 2007).
National Film Preservation Foundation. Film Preservation Guide: The Basics for Archives, Libraries and Museums (2004).
Rieger, Oya. Preservation in the Age of Large-scale Digitization: A White Paper (Washington, D.C.: CLIR, February 2008).
Ritzenthaler, Mary Lynn et al. Photographs: Archival Care and Management (Chicago, IL: Society of American Archivists, 2006).
Ritzenthaler, Mary Lynn. Preserving Archives and Manuscripts 2nd ed. (Chicago, IL: Society of American Archivists, 2010).

December 6: Legal and cultural protocols issues relating to archives and manuscript materials.
Required readings:
Christen, Kimberly. “Opening Archives: Respectful Repatriation,” American Archivist (Spring 2011): 185-210.
Finlay, Cassie. “People, Records and Power: What Archives Can Learn from WikiLeaks,” paper presented at the International Congress on Archives, Brisbane, Australia, August 2012.
Hensen, Steven L. “The President’s Papers are the People’s Business,” editorial from the Washington Post 2001.
Maher, William J. “Between Authors and Users: Archivists in the Copyright Vise,” Archival Issues 26 no 1, 2001: 63-75.
Protocols for Native American Archival Materials (2007).
Society of American Archivists. “Basic Principles for Managing Intellectual Property in the Digital Environment: An Archival Perspective,” 1997.

Reference text:
Behrnd-Klodt, Menzi L. Navigating Legal Issues in Archives (Chicago, IL: Society of American Archivists, 2008).

December 7: Term paper due in paper form to Patricia Garcia. Turn in to Information Studies front desk on 2nd floor GSEIS Building by 5pm.